Japanese auto parts makers fined over US$ 76 million for price fixing in S. Korea


A number of Japan’s largest auto parts makers
have been fined tens of millions of dollars by South Korea’s antitrust watchdog for price
fixing. The Fair Trade Commission says the companies
had been working together to fix prices to rip off South Korean automakers for a decade. Lee Seung-jae reports. South Korea’s Fair Trade Commission says four
of Japan’s largest auto parts makers have been fined a combined 76 million U.S. dollars. The firms were found to have been fixing prices
in collusion when selling alternators and ignition coils to local automakers for a period
spanning 10 years. The four Japanese firms include Mitsubishi
Electric and Hitachi Automotive Systems, which were fined over 66.4 million dollars and 3.4
million dollars respectively,… and were referred to prosecutors. Denso Corporation and Diamond Electric Manufacturing
were fined nearly 3.5 million dollars and 2.2 million dollars,… but were not referred
to prosecutors. The FTC says three firms, Mitsubishi, Hitachi
and Denso, agreed to allocate their automaker clients before selling alternators,… a practice
which lasted from 2004 to 2014. When automakers sent requests for quotes,…
sales personnel of the three companies gathered to discuss prices. When selling ignition coil parts,… three
firms,… Diamond, Mitsubishi and Denso, fixed prices
from 2011 to 2016. When automakers made bids for the parts,… Diamond gave up the bid to respect the commercial
supremacy of Denso,… while Mitsubishi presented the highest bid. The South Korean car most impacted by the
price fixing was Renault Samsung’s QM5 model,… which used parts from Mitsubishi Electric. Through the scheme by the companies involved,…
the QM5 model used overpriced parts until it was discontinued. The FTC says the fines were to be announced
last month,… but was delayed, amid concerns it would worsen the trade tensions between
Seoul and Tokyo. However,… with Tokyo’s decision to remove
Seoul from its whitelist of trusted trading partners,… the South Korean government decided
to make the announcement now. Lee Seung-jae, Arirang News.

18 comments

Trump will remove South Korea's status of developing nation in WTO so South Korea will lose its privilege of exporting goods, Hyundai will be in trouble selling cars in North America.

Can I ask for the proof? I mean all this seems made up but okay we will pay all to end TIES forever. Japan should make it a law to never befriend with SK as it seems their hatred knows no bound.

We are going to witness a death of a modern country now, who will go rampage on anything. Now Whitelist drop suddenly out of nowhere auto parts fined? LOL SK will go anywhere to find money for it to say ALIVE. I dont think $76m is going to keep them afloat. But I guess its the best they can do?

Man I’ve known few Chinese and Japanese and I can honestly say even the Chinese are more trustworthy than these sneaky two
Faced Japanese. This island is cursed. I suggest Russia China and Korea should team up and destroy japan from the map. These island mon.key DNA should be gone forever.

BOYCOTT JAPAN!!
Japan is all CONTAMINATED with FUCKUSHIMA NUCLEAR RADIATION!!!
IT'S CANCEROUS AND VERY RADIOACTIVE !!
WHOLE WORLD MUST BE BOYCOTT HIGHLY RADIATION CONTAMINATED JAPAN'S TOKYO OLYMPICS!!!!!!

United States Military and prostitution in South Korea
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United States Military and prostitution in South Korea

Uniform Code of Military Justice warning poster against prostitution and human trafficking posted by USFK.

Alternate Korean name
Hangul 성매매 여성[1]
Hanja 性賣買 女性

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Transcriptions

Alternate Korean name
Hangul 미군 위안부[2][3]

show
Transcriptions

During and following the Korean War, the United States military used regulated prostitution services in South Korean military camptowns. Despite prostitution being illegal since 1948, women in South Korea were the fundamental source of sex services for the U.S. military as well as a component of American and Korean relations.[4] The women in South Korea who served as prostitutes are known as kijichon (기지촌) women and were visited by the U.S. military, Korean soldiers and Korean civilians. Kijich'on women were from Korea, Philippines, China, Vietnam, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Indonesiaand the Commonwealth of Independent States,[5][6][7] specifically Uzbekistan, Russia and Kazakhstan.[6][8][9][7]

Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 U.S. Military Government Rule in South Korea 1945-1948
2.2 Post Korean War
2.3 Racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans
2.4 Camptown Clean-Up Campaign
2.5 South Korean Women's Movement
2.6 Post-military government rule
3 Policies
3.1 Abolishment of Public Prostitution Law
3.2 Mutual Defense Treaty
3.3 Nixon Doctrine
4 Kijich'on (Military Camptown)
4.1 Kyŏnggi Province
5 Women and offspring
6 In popular culture
6.1 Films
6.2 Theater
6.3 Novels
7 See also
8 References
9 Bibliography
10 External links
Etymology[edit]

Prostitutes servicing members of the U.S. military in South Korea have been known locally under a variety of terms. They have been referred to as "bar girls", "special entertainers", "comfort women", "hostesses", and "business women".[10]

Yankee princess (Hangul: 양공주; 洋公主; yanggongju; foreigner's whore[11][12][13]) also translated as Western princess, were other common names and literal translations for the prostitutes in the Gijichon, U.S. military Camp Towns[1][14][15] in South Korea.[16][17][18] The term "Western princess" has been commonly used in the press, such as The Dong-a Ilbo for decades.[16] It is also used as a derogatory term when referring to interracial couples, particular those between a white male and Korean female.[19]

Yankee whore (Hangul: 양갈보 Yanggalbo)[11] and Western whore are also common names. The women are also referred to as U.N. madams (Hangul: 유엔마담,[20][21] U.N. madam).[22]

Juicy girls is a common name for Filipina prostitutes.[23]

Until the early 1990s, the term Wianbu (Hangul: 위안부, 慰安妇 "Comfort Women") was often used by South Korean media and officials to refer to prostitutes for the U.S. military,[24][25] but comfort women was also the euphemism used for the sex slaves for the Imperial Japanese Army,[26][27][28] and in order to avoid confusions, the term yanggongju (Yankee princess) replaced wianbu to refer to sexual laborers for the U.S. military.[1][29][30]

The early 1990s also saw the two women's rights movements diverge: on one side the one representing the Cheongsindae (comfort women for the Japanese military), and on the other side the movement representing the Gijichon (Camptown for the US military). Despite many women on both sides being victims of forced labor, those who supported Cheongsidae believed the kijich'on women were willing participants in the system of prostitution and sexually promiscuous.[31]

Now some South Korean media use the term migun wianbu (미군 위안부, 美軍慰安婦 "US military comfort women"),[2][3] translating to "American comfort women".

History[edit]

Beginning in 1945, an institutionalized system of prostitution was adopted and permitted by the U.S. military and the Republic of Korea. Despite the United States Forces Korea's policy stating, "Hiring prostitutes is incompatible with our military core values",[32] there is a discrepancy between "practice" and "policy".[33] In Korean society, prostitution is viewed as a "necessary evil".[34] The U.S. military have explained it as military culture that allows for American GI's to blow off steam and prevent homosexual tendencies.[35] Prostitutes for U.S. soldiers were esteemed to be at the bottom of the social hierarchy by South Koreans.[36] They were also lowest status within the hierarchy of prostitution.[37]

U.S. Military Government Rule in South Korea 1945-1948[edit]

In September 1945, United States Armed Forces, led by General John R. Hodge, occupied South Korea after Korea's liberation from Japan. This also included Imperial Japanese comfort stations.[38] Immediately, these events constructed the foundation of government sanctioned prostitution that was established in Korea under Japan's rule.[39] The formation of licensed prostitution by Japan established registration protocols and mandatory STD examinations for Korean sex workers. Once the U.S. military occupied Korea, these examinations were conducted by the Bureau of Public Health and Welfare.[40] In order to protect U.S. soldiers from contracting diseases from prostitutes, the service bars and clubs were relocated near and within military bases. By confining the prostitutes to within a small area, the U.S. military had the power to regulate and monitor the women's activities and health. As the U.S. military government tolerated and regulated prostitution, women's organizations argued for the abolishment of prostitution. In response, the United States passed The Abolishment of Public Prostitution Law in 1947. This abolished licensed prostitution; however, the law increased the proliferation of private prostitution.[41][page needed]

Post Korean War[edit]

The aftermath of the Korean War resulted in extreme poverty and chaos. This produced a large influx in prostitutes as women resorted to sex work in order to support themselves and their family members.[42] The "mass-production" of sex workers was also contributed to the Mutual Defense Treaty which formally granted the U.S. military to occupy and establish military bases in South Korea.[43] By 1953, the total number of prostitutes amounted to 350,000[44][45] as camptown prostitution became a permanent structure in South Korea after the Korean War. Between the 1950s and 1960s, 60% of South Korean prostitutes worked near U.S. military camps.[44][45]

The Second Republic viewed prostitution as something of a necessity.[46] Starting in the 1960s, an official organized system was established to provide the U.S. military men with entertainment and leisure that fulfilled their sexual fantasies, such as peep shows and strip clubs.[33] Lawmakers of the National Assembly urged the South Korean government to train a supply of prostitutes for allied soldiers to prevent them from spending their dollars in Japan.[46] Lee Seung-u, the deputy home minister, gave a response to the National Assembly that the government had made some improvements in the "Supply of Prostitutes" for American soldiers.[46] These camptowns existed as a site for the American GI's R&R.[citation needed]

Park Chung-hee (left) shakes hands with General Guy S. Meloyafter the May 16 coup. Park helped to enforce the "Base Community Clean-Up Campaign".[47][48]

Park Chung-hee, who ruled South Korea during the 1960s and 1970s, and the father of the former president Park Geun-hye, encouraged the sex industry in order to generate revenue, particularly from the U.S. military.[49] Park seized power in the May 16 coup, and immediately enforced two core laws.[50] The first was the prostitution prevention law, which excluded "camp towns" from the governmental crackdown on prostitution; the second was the tourism promotion law, which designated camp towns as special tourism districts.[50]

During the 1960s, camp town prostitution and related businesses generated nearly 25% of the South Korean GNP.[51] In 1962, 20,000 comfort women were registered.[1] The prostitutes attended classes sponsored by their government in English and etiquette to help them sell more effectively.[52] They were praised as "dollar-earning patriots" or "true patriots" by the South Korean government.[35][49][52] In the 1970s one junior high school teacher told his students that "The prostitutes who sell their bodies to the U.S. military are true patriots. Their dollars earned greatly contributes to our national economy. Don't talk behind their back that they are western princesses or U.N. madams."[20]

Base Community clean up policy, signed by President Park in 1977.

In 1971, the number of American soldiers was reduced by 18,000 due to the Nixon Doctrine.[53][54] Because of this, South Koreans were more afraid of the North Korean threat and its economic impact.[55]Even so, camp town prostitution had already become an important component of South Korean livelihood.[55] The advocacy group My Sister's Place wrote in 1991 that the American soldiers contributed one billion dollars to the South Korean economy. This was 1% of the South Korean GNP.[56]

As the country which can't make anything without importing Japanese components, it is quite a bold challenge. Do you have a brain? We can stop shipping key components anytime we want. Don't lose your automobile company with Samsung!

Samsung motors are making Nissan car. Nissan will stop order Samsung motors. Japanese parts suppliers won't need to export to Korea.
Samsung motors will be collapsed by Korean self sanctions. hahaha

Fine actually too small. I have no idea why the fine is so small compared to how much profit they raked in. Europe slapped much higher fine in hundreds of millions.

S.Korea is acting as if this is US-China trade war. However, probably Japan is going to take no action against this because Japan's intention is not to damage S.Korean economy but to ensure Japan's safety from N.Korea.
S.Korea is exaggerating non-whitelisted, but they just need to take a same action as they trade with Europe, nothing more than clearly show each product is used for which purpose and by which company to Japanese government. I assume major suppliers like Samsung and LG would have no damage.
A lot of people believed S.Korean government was confronting against Japan with many issues to use them as the reason for necessity to unite with N.Korea. It became quite obvious recently. Moon can be the biggest tragedy in S.Korean history.

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